institute of SIO published an article on Nature's sub journal elaborated the automatic observation platform of marine biogeochemistry

Editor:admin Author:Xing XG @ Wang YT Date:2020-05-27 Hits:2760

      In May, the marine ecological environment observation and simulation team of SIO was invited to publish a review article entitled "Monitoring ocean biogeochemistry with autonomous platforms" on Nature's sub journal ¡°Reviews Earth & Environment¡±. The paper reviews the development of ocean observation platform (Fig. 1), summarizes the observation advantages and development status of the autonomous mobile platform, illustrating the important role of the autonomous platform in future marine ecology and biogeochemistry research and the importance of multi-platform cooperative observation. ¡°Nature Reviews Earth & Environment¡± as the new journal of the ¡°Nature Reviews¡± series, aims to introduce, summarize or sort out the technological development, scientific research achievements and knowledge system of Geosciences.        
      Human activities have a profound impact on the characteristics of the marine ecological environment, short term events such as warming, acidification, anoxia and corresponding long term trends, not only gradually change the process of marine biogeochemical cycle, but also affect the healthy development of the marine ecosystem, the maintenance of biodiversity and the sustainable utilization of fishery resources. It is in this context that traditional ship-based platform and observation model of satellite remote sensing are difficult to monitor and predict the impact of these changes on ocean health. How to establish a scientific and efficient way of observation and prediction is a long-term focus of the international community.      
      Over the past 10 years, with the rapid development of ocean automatic observation technology and equipment, new automatic mobile observation platforms (such as profiling float, underwater glider, wave glider, unmanned sailing boat), especially the global BGC-Argo observation network which is composed of Argo profiling floats with bio-optical and biogeochemical sensors, is gradually realizing the real-time observation of three-dimensional marine biogeochemistry and the dynamic change process of the ecosystem. The network provides critical support for the simulation and prediction of the marine ecosystem.
      BGC-Argo program is an important part of the international Argo program, which is responsible for planning and managing the deployment of the BGC-Argo profiling floats (Fig. 2a). The program's objective is to establish a global biogeochemical and ecosystem observation array consist of 1000 profiling floats. It also represents an important development direction of the Argo program in the future, which is from single thermohaline observation to the comprehensive ocean observation platform. Making it able to support multi-scale marine biogeochemical research and ecosystem assessment. At the OceanObs'19, implementation details of the BGC-Argo program were improved, the improved program has better interaction and collaboration with the Argo program, thus it can realize the program's long-term vision¡ªglobalization, comprehensive, multidisciplinary. What's more, in some coastal areas, underwater glider (Fig. 2b) has already been widely used, in some places (such as the east and west coasts of the United States, the Mediterranean Sea) it has become routine operational observation; the unmanned sailing boats (Fig. 2c) and wave glider (Fig. 2d) are mainly used for basin-scale observation, relevant experiments have been carried out in the eddy zone of South Pacific Ocean and the South Ocean. The future regional ocean survey will be mainly based on the mode of multi-platform collaborative observation, to obtain multi-disciplinary important parameters synchronously in real-time.

Fig. 2 Four major types of automatic marine observation platforms
(a: profiling float£»b: underwater glider£»c: unmanned sailing boat£»d: wave glider)

      The emergence of self-contained mobile platform, especially the global BGC-Argo observation network, greatly expanded the coverage of traditional observation platform, its advantages are mainly reflected in: (1) continuous spatial coverage contains scales from sub-medium, medium, basin-scale even to global scale; (2) continuous-time coverage from synoptic scale, intraseasonal scale, seasonal scale and even interannual scale; (3) continuous vertical coverage from the sea surface, photic zone and disphotic zone. China has led and participated in many international cooperation programs, which will promote the development and application of mobile observation platforms. China has developed a simulation and prediction system based on a new observation platform to provide science support for global marine ecological environment protection and the UN's ¡°Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development¡±.  


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